Paper Title
Investigating The Increase in The Yield of Phycocyanin From Spirulina Platensis Microalgae and its Applications in Polymer Industries

This study investigates the potential increase in phycocyanin yield from microalgae Spirulina platensis through altering cultivation environment conditions and employing innovative extraction methods. Phycocyanin is one of the most important proteins found in algae. This protein has the ability to store energy and combine with other substances to form new polymers for various applications. It can also be used as a powerful antioxidant in different industries. In this research, cultivation environment conditions including light intensity, temperature, and pH were optimized, and their effects on biomass production and subsequent increase in phycocyanin levels were examined. Additionally, four extraction methods, including solvent extraction, ultrasonic technology, microwave-assisted extraction, and freeze-thaw cycle extraction, were investigated. Based on the obtained data, the optimal method for phycocyanin extraction from microalgae Spirulina platensis was determined. The results of this study demonstrate that biomass production and subsequent phycocyanin yield significantly increase with higher light intensity, the use of LED lights with suitable spectra, optimal temperature and pH adjustment in the cultivation environment, and the utilization of innovative extraction methods. Phycocyanin is a natural pigment found in algae and other plants, famous for its blue-green color. This compound possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antimicrobial properties. Due to its unique biological and functional properties, phycocyanin has gained attention in various industries, including food, pharmaceutical, and papermaking. One of its new applications is in the production of biodegradable polymers. By using chemical and physical methods, phycocyanin can be incorporated into the process of producing biodegradable polymers. These polymers, due to their biological nature, have the ability to naturally decompose and degrade in the environment, contributing to environmental preservation. Phycocyanin can enhance the mechanical properties, impact resistance, and biodegradability of polymers. This compound can serve as a sustainable and renewable alternative to traditional polymers, which often face challenges like non-biodegradability in the environment. This application demonstrates that besides its medicinal properties, phycocyanin can play a significant role in the production of biodegradable polymers. Based on the studies and investigations conducted on increasing the phycocyanin yield from the microalgae Spirulina platensis, altering the cultivation conditions, especially increasing light intensity and adjusting nutrient concentrations (particularly adding vitamin E and B12, as well as the amino acid L-leucine), leads to increased biomass production and consequently, phycocyanin production in Spirulina platensis. These results indicate that environmental conditions can have a considerable impact on phycocyanin production. Additionally, the use of innovative extraction methods such as microwave and ultrasonic waves also enhances the speed and efficiency of phycocyanin extraction. By combining these two approaches, namely altering cultivation conditions and employing novel extraction methods, the yield of phycocyanin can be improved, resulting in better utilization of Spirulina platensis for various industrial and medical applications. Therefore, in general, altering cultivation conditions and using innovative extraction methods can enhance phycocyanin yield. However, further detailed investigations and more experiments are needed to optimize phycocyanin yield and identify the precise factors affecting phycocyanin yield. Additionally, studying the effects of replacing cultivation with advanced technologies like hydroponics and various lighting techniques can further enhance phycocyanin yield. Furthermore, examining the impacts of external factors such as air and water pollution, air and water temperature, and climatic variations can contribute to improving phycocyanin yield. Phycocyanins hold significant promise for a wide range of applications in the polymer industry. Their natural origin, biodegradability, antioxidant properties, and photoluminescence make them attractive additives for enhancing various aspects of polymer materials. The synergy between phycocyanins and polymers opens up opportunities for creating innovative and sustainable products across multiple sectors. Phycocyanins possess antimicrobial and antioxidant properties due to their ability to scavenge free radicals and inhibit the growth of microorganisms. Incorporating phycocyanins into polymers can result in materials with enhanced resistance to microbial growth and improved stability against oxidative degradation and by integrating phycocyanins into packaging materials, such as films or coatings, it's possible to create bioactive packaging solutions. These materials could help extend the shelf life of perishable goods by inhibiting the growth of spoilage microorganisms and preventing oxidation. In other applications, Phycocyanins can be used as nanofillers in biodegradable polymers, creating nanocomposites with improved mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties. These nanocomposites could find applications in various fields, including packaging, agriculture, and biomedical engineering. Phycocyanins exhibit photo luminescent properties, emitting light when exposed to certain wavelengths. By incorporating these pigments into polymers, it's possible to create photo luminescent materials that could be used in applications such as security features, sensors, and light-emitting devices. Phycocyanin-incorporated hydrogels can be developed for controlled drug delivery systems. The hydrogel can encapsulate pharmaceutical compounds and release them gradually, offering potential applications in medical treatments and therapies. Phycocyanins' biodegradable nature and potential for adsorbing heavy metals make them suitable candidates for environmental remediation applications. Incorporating phycocyanins into polymers could lead to materials capable of removing pollutants from water and soil. The combination of phycocyanins with polymers can be explored for bio inks in 3D bio printing. Bioinks containing phycocyanins could be used to print structures for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In summary, phycocyanins hold significant promise for a wide range of applications in the polymer industry. according to the above, one of the applications of phycocyanin in food protective coating in combination with polyhydroxybutyrate will be studied in the next research of these researchers.