BULLYING IN SCHOOLS OF KAZAKHSTAN: PREVALENCE, RISKS AND PREVENTIVE MEASURES
Abstract - The purpose of the study: to determine the prevalence of bullying among children and adolescents, identify risks and suggest ways to prevent bullying. For the research work, the following psychological methods were chosen concerning the problem of bullying, such as the method of determining the "Bullying structure" (E. G. Norkina), the questionnaire for getting out of stressful situations by S. Hobfall, the methodology for studying trends in victim behavior, as well as a conversation, theoretical and statistical analysis of the results. The study involved 63 students in grades 6-8 in Kazakhstan of
both sexes. The results were obtained: children face bullying, but more often not with open violence, but psychological
bullying: name-calling, bullying, and ridicule. There are children who remain isolated and experience discomfort from this. The children also noted that they face various forms of bullying not only from classmates but also from teachers. There are discrepancies in the results of the study by gender. Boys are more likely to become "victims" of bullying than girls, just as boys use the strategy of assertive behavior more, and girls use manipulation. To correct interpersonal relationships, we conducted conversations, and a series of training with students aimed at rallying the student team, developing communication skills, and improving the psychological microclimate in groups.
Conclusion: bullying exists in children and adolescents and has various forms of distribution, the teaching staff does not always notice its manifestations and sometimes does not consciously initiate bullying itself. Therefore, special programs are needed to prevent bullying in schools and practical recommendations for both teachers and students and their parents to prevent it.
Keywords - Bullying, School, Bullying Risks, Psychological Trauma, Prevention