The Role of Forensic Genetics with in Criminal Justice System
The human body leaves traces wherever it goes: hair, saliva and other bodily fluids, footprints, and so on. Throughout history, the materiality of the body has been a critical component of criminal investigations. The essential function of the human body in identifying criminals has taken on new forms during the last 35 years, as forensic science has become more integrated into criminal justice systems. Forensic science is a collection of scientific disciplines and approaches with the primary objective of assisting police-judicial procedures and operations. Forensic genetics strives to precisely identify the biological origin of a material to assist the justice system in addressing and resolving civil and criminal matters. The term "crime governance" is intended to draw attention to the underlying beliefs, discourses, and strategies that define this social realm. The administration of crime encompasses a broader range of issues than simply the response of society to the crime. Additionally, it involves novel methods for monitoring and controlling behaviour, as well as redesigned means of administering justice, all of which contribute to the construction of new ideas of justice and social governance.
We will contextualise the expanding, more expansive way in which biometric technologies, particularly forensic genetics, have been incorporated to crime-fighting techniques. By systematically collecting, storing, exchanging, and utilising genetic data on a massive scale, new social sorting systems are pushed and implemented. These technology systems do not just act on individuals; they develop increasingly intricate methods of monitoring and controlling specific individuals and social groups, both in order to understand the impact and reach. Finally, this notion enables us to go further than way state structures rule contemporary societies and consider the role of other social organisations in the regulation of crime in contemporary cultures. As is the case with the networks that generate scientific knowledge, which serve as a tangible manifestation of the metaphorical power invested in research and technology. This includes non-governmental groups, private businesses, the media, and civil society, among others.
As a result, forensic genetic repositories and associated DNA technologies are constantly being expanded and refined, with one aspect of this expansion being increased interoperability. With the objective of enhancing police cooperation inside the European Union, the lot of global methods for population monitoring and surveillance has increased. The sixth chapter concentrates on this issue, namely on how the expansion of the European Union's borders was followed by a development of transnational criminality-related control mechanisms. Among these is the Prüm System, which is a network established between EU Member States with the purpose of exchanging data kept in national databases across the Union to combat terrorism and cross-border crimes.
The adoption, growth, and augmentation of the Prüm System have resulted in acrimonious arguments over transparency, accountability, and data privacy. In a datafied world, administrators of forensic genetic archives recycle ideas such as ethnicity, race, and national identity as useful categories. These operational classifications are deployed as organising principles and so perpetuated by a kind of logic that treats them as acquired data. Several authors, however, have cautioned that latest security technologies have, in fact, bolstered the legitimacy of old prejudices and even generated new ways to stigmatise and exclude, from the moment surveillance technologies operate on principles that distinguish suspect from non-suspicious individuals. Following operational precepts, a set of techniques is used to criminal investigations that would otherwise raise ethical concerns due to the curtailment of civil rights. Additionally, the inference of geographical ancestry is employed in conjunction with the inference of physical traits via DNA. This is accomplished by determining the distribution of the data of the genetic profiles by zone and the following closeness of the reference sample to a probable area of origin. Combining these two procedures is referred to here as forensic DNA phenotyping. The application of these developing DNA innovations and the ensuing scientific, ethical, and legal problems.
Keywords - Forensic Genetics, Prüm System, Phenotyping