Paper Title
Effectiveness of Training Methods on Technical and Vocational Students: A Systematic Review

Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) aims to provide students with the knowledge, skills and competencies required in an increasingly internationalised labour market and multicultural society. TVET is a practical oriented programme therefore requires right training methods. Initial education and training will need to react more effectively and promptly to change job requirements and societal trends. Moreover, training methods for technical and vocational education are needed to avoid occupational accidents and work-related diseases before they are exposed to the real life working situations. In reviewing training methods reported in the literature, 15 were identified: on the job training, apprenticeship training, special needs education and training, behaviour-based safety training, project method, active structuring, brainstroming, simulation, group work, metaplan technique, competency based training, the six steps teaching factory learning program model (TF-6M), activity based instruction, problem based learning, and innovative tools and models. Overall, this systematic review revealed the most common training methods used: on the job training, project method, simulation, brainstorming and competency based training. These methods have been identified to be effective in teaching practical oriented subject like vocational and technical subjects. A selection of appropriate training methods will give ideas to educators, teachers, trainers and instructors to change their teaching behaviour in order to educate younger generation to be prepared for the world of work. Moreover, the modern job market demands even more, good attitudes and continuous proactive lifelong learning are now keys to success. Keywords - Training Methods, Technical and Vocational Students, Competencies, Systematic Review